Kristin SommerKristin Sommer

Phone: (646) 312-3812

Fax: 646-312-3781

Location: VC 8-273


Kristin Sommer is a Professor of Psychology at Baruch College, City University of New York. She also holds appointments on the doctoral faculties in Basic and Applied Social Psychology and Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the Graduate Center. Dr. Sommer's primary research interests lie with the effects of peer and coworker rejection on individual performance motivation and interpersonal behavior. She also conducts research on self-regulation, social influence, and motivated decision-making processes in small groups. Dr. Sommer teaches undergraduate and doctoral courses in research methods and social psychology, as well as a course on research design in work organizations as part of Baruch College’s Executive Master’s Program in Management of Human Resource and Global Leadership in Taipei, Taiwan and Singapore. She has received numerous internal awards as well as research and training grants from the National Institute of Mental Health and the National Science Foundation.  She sits on the editorial boards of Social Influence and Basic and Applied Social Psychology.

Please visit Dr. Sommer’s Interpersonal Processes Laboratory page for more information.

Selected Publications

Sommer, K.L., & Bernieri, F. (in press). Minimizing the pain and probability of rejection: Evidence for relational distancing and proximity seeking within face-to-face interactions. Social Psychological and Personality Science.

Kulkarni, M., Sommer, K. (in press). Language-based exclusion and prosocial behavior in organizations. Human Resource Management.

Sommer, K., Yoon, J. (2013). When silence is golden: Ego depletion following aversive social interactions. Journal of Personal and Social Relationships, 30(7), 901-919.

Sommer, K.L., & Kulkarni, M. (2012). Does constructive performance feedback improve citizenship intentions and job satisfaction? The roles of perceived opportunities for advancement, respect, and mood. Human Resource Decision Quarterly, 23(2), 177-201.

Sommer, K.L., Baumeister, R.F., & Stillman, T. (2012). The construction of meaning from life events: Empirical studies of personal narratives. In P.T.P. Wong & P.S. Fry (Eds.), Handbook of personal meaning: Theory, research, & application (2nd edition) (pgs. 297-313). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis.

Sommer, K.L., Parson, C., Bruno, S., & Bourgeois, M.J. (2011). Sex and need for power as predictors of reactions to disobedience. Social Influence, 7 (1), 1-19.

Sommer, K.L. & Bourgeois (2010). Linking the perceived ability to influence others to subjective well-being: A need-based approach. Social Influence, 5, 200-244.

Dotan-Eliaz, O., Sommer, K.L., & Rubin, Y. (2009). Working in a multilingual context: Effects of linguistic ostracism on coworker attraction, team potency, performance, and aggressive thought. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 31, 363 - 375.

Sommer, K.L., & Benkendorf, D. (2009). Looking before leaping: The role of social expectancies in attachment regulation following interpersonal rejection. In M.J. Harris (Ed.), Bullying, Rejection, and Peer Victimization: A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective (pgs. 225 – 250). Springer. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Sommer, K.L. Kirkland, K.L., Newman, S., Estrella, P., & Andreassi, J.L. (2009). Narcissism and cardiovascular reactivity to thoughts of rejection. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 1083-1115.

Bourgeois, M.J., Sommer, K.L., & Bruno, S. (2009). What do we get out of influencing others? Social Influence, 4, 1-26.

Sommer, K.L., & Rubin, Y. (2005). Role of social expectancies in cognitive and behavioral responses to rejection. In K.D. Williams, J.P. Forgas, & W. Von Hippel (Eds.),  The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying (Pgs. 171-183.) Psychology Press: New York.

Sommer, K.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (2002). Self-evaluation, persistence, and performance following implicit rejection: The role of trait self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 926-938.

Sommer, K.L., Williams, K.D., Ciarocco, N.J., & Baumeister, R.F. (2001). When silence speaks louder than words: Explorations into the interpersonal and intrapsychic consequences of social ostracism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 23, 227-245.

Ciarocco, N.J., Sommer, K.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (2001). Ostracism and ego depletion: The strains of silence.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1156-1163.

Sommer, K.L., Horowitz, I.A., & Bourgeois, M.J. (2001). When juries fail to comply with the law: Biased evidence processing in individual and group decision making. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 309-320.

Sommer, K.L. (2001). Coping with rejection: Ego-defensive strategies, self-esteem, and interpersonal relationships. In M. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection (pgs. 167-188). New York: Oxford University Press. 

Baumeister, R.F., Dale, K., & Sommer, K.L. (1998). Freudian defense mechanisms and empirical findings in modern social psychology. Journal of Personality, 66,1081-1124.

Baumeister, R.F., Exline, J.J., & Sommer, K.L. (1998). The victim role, grudge theory, and two dimensions of forgiveness. In E. Worthington (Ed.), Dimensions of forgiveness:  Psychological research and theological perspectives (pp. 79-104). Radnor, PA: Templeton Press.

Sommer, K.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (1998). The construction of meaning from life events: Empirical studies of personal narratives. In P.T.P. Wong & P.S. Fry (Eds.), Handbook of personal meaning: Theory, research, & application (pp 143-161). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Bratslavsky, E., Baumeister, R.F., & Sommer, K.L. (1998). To love or be loved in vain: The trials and tribulations of unrequited love. In B.H. Spitzberg & W.R. Cupach (Eds.), The dark side of relationships (pp. 307-326) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Williams, K.D, & Sommer, K.L. (1997). Social ostracism by coworkers: Does rejection lead to loafing or compensation? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 693-706.

Baumeister, R.F., & Sommer, K.L. (1997). Patterns in the bizarre: Common themes in satanic ritual abuse, sexual masochism, UFO abductions, factitious illness, and extreme love. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 16, 213-223.

Baumeister, R.F., & Sommer, K.L. (1997). What do men want? Gender differences and two spheres of belongingness. Psychological Bulletin, 122, 38-44.

Sommer, K.L., & Baumeister, R.F. (1997). Making someone feel guilty: Causes, strategies, and consequences. In R. Kowalski (Ed.), Aversive interpersonal behaviors (pp. 31-55). New York: Plenum.

Baumeister, R.F., Sommer, K.L. (1997). Consciousness, free choice, and automaticity. In R.S. Wyer, Jr. (Ed.), Advances in social cognition (Vol.10, pp. 75-81). Mahway, NJ: Erlbaum.

Baumeister, R.F., Sommer, K.L., & Cicora, K.F. (1996). Inequity and iniquity in marriage. Social Justice Research, 9, 199-212. 

Sommer, K.L. (1995). Resource book for social psychology: A teacher’s tool kit. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.

The City University of New York