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World Cities

   
     
 

Favorable Characteristics of International Cities
(By PricewaterhouseCoopers)

 
     
 

Modern cities are the home to most of the world's population and intellectual and economic capital. Periodically, a comprehensive report is prepared by PriceWaterhouseCoopers of the top performing business cities in the world.


In 2016, the report analyzed a city's performance and functionality by evaluating (10) indicators across (67) variables to reveal how well-balanced a city is for both businesses and residents. London claimed the #1 spot with Singapore and Toronto following closely behind, and New York sitting on the 6th spot this time around.


  A total of 30 cities were evaluated, resulting in the following overall rankings*:  
  1. London 7. Stockholm 13. Chicago 19. Beijing 25. São Paulo  
  2. Singapore 8. San Francisco 14. Los Angeles 20. Kuala Lumpur 26. Bogotá  
  3. Toronto 9. Hong Kong 15. Tokyo 21. Shanghai 27. Rio De Janeiro  
  4. Paris 10. Sydney 16. Madrid 22. Moscow 28. Jakarta  
  5. Amsterdam 11. Seoul 17. Dubai 23. Mexico City 29. Mumbai  
  6. New York 12. Berlin 18. Milan 24. Johannesburg 30. Lagos  
 

Three key factors governed the choice of cities:


  • Capital market centers. Many of the cities included are hubs of commerce, communications and culture. But all are financial capitals of their region—meaning each plays an important role not only locally but also as a vital part of a globalizing economic fabric.
  • Distributed over a broad geographic sampling. While each city is a center of finance and commerce in its own region and in many cases the world, collectively the 30 cities form a representative international distribution.
  • Balanced between mature and emerging economies.
 
     
 

The relevant data were collected from three main sources:


  • Global multilateral development organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • National statistics organizations, such as National Statistics in the UK and the Census Bureau in the U.S.
  • Commercial data providers.
 
     
 

Our current table highlights the TOP 10 performing business cities based on this report.

To view the complete report, visit PWC: Cities of Opportunity

 
     
    London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
Total Score
1,466
1,377
1,366
1,360
1,334
1,324
1,316
1,302
1,290
1,245
 
     
  Intellectual
Capital &
Innovation
Score

184

136

166

168

166

158

146

171

131

147

 
 
Libraries w/
Public Access
29
7
23
30
24
21
26
25
11
20
 
 
Math/Science
Skills Attainment
20
29
23
19
24
16
11
16
28
21
 
 
% of Pop w/
Higher Education
27
17
24
21
29
22
25
30
7
14
 
 
World University
Rankings
30
16
20
27
14
22
19
21
26
25
 
 
Innovation
Cities Index
28
16
25
27
26
29
20
30
18
19
 
 
Intellectual
Property
Protection
28
30
25
24
26
20
21
20
27
23
 
 
Entrepreneurial
Environment
22
21
26
20
23
28
24
29
14
25
 
  Technology
Readiness
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney    
 
142
167
121
121
140
140
139
126
129
100
 
 
Internet Access
in Schools
28
29
26
9
30
23
27
23
19
24
 
 
Broadband Quality
19
29
17
27
21
23
25
20
30
10
 
 
Mobile Broadband Speed
18
30
22
27
29
17
21
15
16
28
 
 
ICT usage
30
27
27
24
28
25
29
24
22
17
 
 
Software Dev. & Multi-Media Design
28
23
8
22
14
24
12
20
15
1
 
 
Digital Security
19
29
21
12
18
28
25
24
27
20
 
  City
Gateway
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney    
 
187
146
99
169
146
142
84
96
159
97
 
 
Hotel Rooms
28
20
14
24
7
29
5
12
23
6
 
 
Intl. Tourists
29
28
9
27
19
25
11
10
30
8
 
 
Number of Intl.
Association Meetings
27
26
16
29
25
10
20
6
24
19
 
 
Incoming/Outgoing
Passenger Flows
30
15
11
27
16
29
4
18
19
10
 
 
Airport to
CBD Access
17
12
16
19
28
10
19
24
22
26
 
 
Top 100 Airports
26
30
16
15
25
12
11
18
28
22
 
 
Airport Connectivity
30
15
17
28
26
27
14
8
13
6
 
  Tranportation &
Infrastructure
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney    
 
130
174
126
130
117
133
152
141
122
129
 
 
Mass Transit
Coverage
20
21
18
30
25
23
28
29
17
9
 
 
Affordability of
Public Transport
2
24
18
22
7
26
5
29
3
8
 
 
Licensed Taxis
13
22
6
28
20
5
27
9
11
3
 
 
Major
Construction Activity
27
26
19
4
2
23
9
9
29
24
 
 
Housing
24
30
28
16
19
20
24
22
16
30
 
 
Traffic Congestion
24
30
19
17
20
14
29
15
21
28
 
 
Ease of Commute
20
21
18
13
24
22
30
28
25
27
 
  Health, Safety &
Security
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney    
 
133
136
150
125
134
111
137
121
122
140
 
 
Road Safety
28
26
20
22
27
18
29
18
30
21
 
 
Health System
Performance
18
30
27
23
16
13
24
13
22
15
 
 
End-of-Life Care
30
20
21
22
27
26
17
26
14
29
 
 
Crime
19
30
25
14
23
15
22
20
29
26
 
 
Political Environment
18
18
28
25
28
22
30
22
16
25
 
 
Security &
Disease Risk
20
12
29
19
13
17
15
22
11
24
 
  Sustainability
& Natural
Environment
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
115
95
151
143
145
106
168
136
100
168
 
 
Natural
Disaster Exposure
13
22
27
12
2
20
19
12
4
27
 
 
Natural
Disaster Preparedness
27
22
26
14
26
12
23
11
29
24
 
 
Thermal Comfort
19
4
9
18
16
14
8
25
21
29
 
 
Recycled Waste
16
15
21
24
26
7
29
26
17
23
 
 
Air Pollution
24
19
23
18
23
20
30
27
16
29
 
 
Public Park Space
4
8
18
28
26
25
29
24
3
22
 
 
Water-Related
Business Risk
12
5
27
29
23
8
30
11
10
14
 
  Demographics
& Livability
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
162
108
147
165
151
165
133
157
129
122
 
 
Entertainment &s;
Attractions
30
5
16
29
18
28
11
13
8
9
 
 
Quality of Living
16
18
30
27
24
15
28
18
23
29
 
 
Working Age
Population
9
18
15
14
20
8
3
24
23
4
 
 
City Brand
28
16
10
26
27
29
21
22
25
15
 
 
Relocation Attractiveness
30
24
23
26
15
29
14
27
21
28
 
 
Senior Wellbeing
20
21
29
18
27
26
30
26
12
19
 
 
YouthfulCities* Index
29
6
24
25
20
30
26
27
17
18
 
  Economic
Clout
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
152
107
98
110
101
142
101
126
98
116
 
 
Number of Global 500 Headquarters
28
13
21
28
17
26
13
13
19
17
 
 
Employment Growth
22
24
17
3
9
25
12
29
14
23
 
 
Financial & Business Services
Employment
28
12
23
27
30
22
24
25
10
19
 
 
Attracting FDI
28
30
29
22
16
24
5
5
25
20
 
 
Productivity
23
16
18
24
20
29
26
30
17
19
 
 
Rate of Real
GDP Growth
23
12
4
6
9
16
21
24
13
18
 
  Ease of Doing
Business
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
194
209
182
163
143
158
173
144
205
135
 
 
Ease of Starting
a Business
20
29
30
23
24
15
22
18
27
28
 
 
Resolving
Insolvancy
21
18
23
17
22
28
19
28
15
20
 
 
Ease of Entry:
Countries w/ Visa Waiver
25
29
13
14
24
11
19
11
28
6
 
 
Foreign Embassies
& Consulates
30
18
13
29
3
19
23
6
21
11
 
 
Level of Minority
Shareholder
Protection
28
29
26
23
4
19
14
19
30
5
 
 
Operational
Risk Climate
20
29
27
18
25
25
27
25
30
29
 
 
Workforce
Management Risk
27
29
28
18
21
30
22
23
25
19
 
 
Tax Efficiency
23
28
22
21
20
11
27
14
29
17
 
  Cost
Score
London Singapore Toronto Paris Amsterdam New
York
Stockholm San
Francisco
Hong
Kong
Sydney  
 
67
99
126
66
91
69
83
84
95
91
 
 
Corporate Total
Tax Rate
24
29
28
7
19
16
12
18
27
14
 
 
Personal Tax
13
17
11
8
1
3
4
7
28
10
 
 
Cost of Business
Occupancy
1
8
27
7
25
9
19
14
2
11
 
 
Cost of Living
1
5
12
4
8
3
7
6
14
2
 
 
Purchasing Power
21
30
23
24
19
25
20
29
16
28
 
 
Affordability of Rent
7
18
25
16
19
13
21
10
8
26
 
     
 

Notes:
*The 30 cities were sorted from the best performing to the worst. The cities were then assigned a score from 30 (the best performing) to 1 (the worst performing). In the event of a tie, cities were assigned the same score.

 
     
 

View Additional World Cities Data:
Largest 100 Cities in the U.S.
Largest 100 Cities in the World

Return to World Cities Section

 
     
     
 
Source:
PWC.com/cities

There are other similar compilations, each with its own set of criteria.
Among them:

Global Cities Index
The Global Financial Centres Index 19
Search Global City Data

 
Baruch College Weissman Zicklin School of Business