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Over the period since plans were begun to transform our school into the Bernard M. Baruch College, I have noted the concern expressed in faculty meetings whenever anyone raised a point on the prospective organization of the new college. This awareness of the importance of organization intrigued me because I have long had some academic and professional interest in the structures and managerial systems of educational, governmental, and business organizations, and the means by which they are improved.
I accordingly resolved to draft a proposed organization for the new Baruch College, and am sending a copy to each of my fellow faculty members, some of whom are now members of a Transition Committee which is devoting time to problems of organization.
The enclosed material is in two parts.
Part I presents the proposed organization in nine charts, each accompanied by brief comments. The first chart presents a conceptual view of the organization of the College as a whole, the remaining charts provide pictures of important segments of the college.
Part II is in the form of a report presenting the conclusions drawn from my own analysis of the needs of Baruch College, more detailed specifications of a proposed organizational structure designed to meet these needs, and discussions of the position of each segment of college operation in the structure with reasons for the arrangements as proposed.
In order to assure that no bias other than my own influenced the conclusions, I have deliberately refrained from showing a draft to anyone outside of my own office.
I believe we all feel that the setting up of a new college affords an opportunity for improving our organizational structure. My hope is that persons thus concerned with attaining effectiveness in our future operations can use the proposed organizational structure and the discussions as a useful point of departure and as an aid to their thinking.
A PROPOSED ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
for the BERNARD M. BARUCH COLLEGE -
Chart I - Overall Structure - Concept and Form
Chart II - The School of Business and Public Administration
Chart III - School of Arts and Sciences
Chart IV - Graduate Studies
Chart V - Special Sessions and Programs - Organization
Chart VI - Special Sessions and Programs - Divisions and Responsibilities
Chart VII - Extension Programs
Chart VIII - Services
Chart IX - Service Units
REPORT: REQUIREMENTS AND CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS AND AUTHORITY, in the BARNARD M. BARUCH COLLEGE -
A. ORGANIZATION - PROBLEMS and REQUIREMENTS FOR THEIR SOLUTION
B. INSTRUCTION and EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
Teachers - Faculties - Schools
The General Faculty
School of Business and Public Administration
School of Arts and Sciences
Special Sessions and Programs
Nature and Scope
Evening Session Undergraduate
Summer Session Undergraduate
Types of Extension Program
Nature and Scope
1.Accounting and Financial (Business Manager)
2.Buildings and Grounds (Superintendent)
3.Computer Service (Administrator)
4.Health - Medical and Psychiatric (College Physician)
6.Personnel (Administrative) and Office Management (Administrator)
7.Public Relations and Publicity (Director)
8.Registrar Functions (Registar)
9.Research and Development (Dean)
10.Student Activities and Guidance (Dean of Students)
D. THE ORGANIZATION VIEWED IN PERSPECTIVE - A SUMMARY OF ITS SALIENT FEATURES
Providing Competent Leadership with Necessary Authority
Use of Available Titles
Maximizing Benefits from use of Available Lines - New and Old
Attaining Overall Coordination
This chart is a schematic presentation of proposed major unit clusters of an independent Baruch College - and of the major inter-relations of these unit clusters. The chart is intended to indicate that the major function of the College is education housed in and serviced by a structure whose functions are subordinated to that task, and whose lines of authority center clearly on the office of the President.
Where Functions clearly interpenetrate, that fact is shown. Blocks bounded by solid lines indicate operating unit clusters. Where no solid line appears, the chart indicates a collective of concerns - whether or not formally organized - rather than a body operating with exclusive autonomy.
The charts that follow present generally the functions within each major unit cluster, and indicate the rank of the individual responsible for the cluster of functions subsumed under the major function for which the executive is responsible.
There is no attempt to make a particularized presentation of the make-up of the office of each dean or other person responsible for a major function . It is assumed that each dean or other operating head will be provided with key persons with appropriate titles (associate, assistant) and the required administrative assistants.
This segment of Baruch College is set up as a school . One reason for this is that carrying over into The Bernard M . Baruch College the title "School of Business and Public Administration" brings a unique advantage. Baruch College will benefit from a rich and valuable tradition that has been created over a half century in which the Bernard M . Baruch School of Business and Public Administration has established itself as a leader in its field. The creation of a school, within the college, carrying that name, capsulizes and helps to carry forth this valuable tradition.
The head of this school is a dean - one of the two school deans within the college. He has under him a faculty - in the full sense of that word. The chart suggests that his faculty-include representatives from departments that (for reasons more fully explained in the appropriate section of Part II) are attached to the School of Arts and Sciences. It is assumed that such representation would be on a predetermined formula satisfactory to the Dean of the School of Business and Public Administration. His "say" in faculty matters is dispostive, subject only to the Dean of Faculties and higher authorities
Compelling reasons dictate that a School of Arts and Sciences be established as a school within the Baruch College.
The possibility of carrying over prestige does not exist as in the case of the School of Business and Public Administration; but the fact that Baruch College must start from scratch in developing degrees and programs suitable for disciplines represented in the arts and sciences provides compelling reasons for a faculty composed primarily of persons concerned with these disciplines and operating with the advantage of guidance from a school dean held responsible for the development.
Provisions for ,representatives attached to the School of Business and Public Administration and the dean's authority in all faculty matters are identical to those described for the School of Business and Public Administration.
In addition to responsibilities for programs leading to degrees in arts and sciences, the Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences has certain responsibilities in respect to courses desired by the School of Business and Public Administration from disciplines represented by departments attached to the School of Arts and Sciences.
This responsibility includes that of cooperating with the Dean of the School of Business and Public Administration to see that instructors assigned to such courses are provided by departments with due regard to needs and standards set by the faculties and the Dean of the School of Business and Public Administration.
The hope is that relations between the deans of these schools be intimate and wholly without jurisdictional jealousy. The structural feature to assure that this objective is accomplished in a manner consistent with the objectives of Baruch College as a whole appears in the provision for a Dean of Faculties to whom appeals from either School Dean may be directed and who is assigned the responsibility of seeing that each school operates in a manner designed to attain the overall purposes of the College.
Chart I shows the Division of Graduate Studies impingeing on both the School of Business and Public Administration and the School of Arts and Sciences.
Chart IV shows the organization of Graduate Studies which is an administrative unit providing the administrative processes involved in pursuit of graduate degrees meeting the requirements of either of the two college schools.
The Division is assigned the function of seeing that courses, degree requirements, and scholastic standards set by faculties
and deans of the two schools are followed in programs leading to graduate degrees - master and doctorate - in the respectiveschools.
Chart I shows the unit of Special Programs as a wafer impingeing on the two schools of the college. The reasons are similar to those already described for Graduate Studies.
The nature of this impingement will appear in succeeding charts which detail subdivisions. More complete explanations appear in the section on Special Sessions and Programs of the report presented in Part II . This section of the report also explains why all "irregular" sessions and programs of the college are placed under a single administrative umbrella, headed by the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs who is responsible to the Dean of Faculties.
This chart shows the subdivisions falling in this unit and indicates the lines of authority. The proposed organization provides for an Evening Session and a Summer Session, each giving degree courses to undergraduate matriculated students enrolled for a degree in one or the other of the College's two schools. The person immediately in charge of each of these sessions would be responsible, through the Director of Special Sessions - Undergraduate, to the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs who would be responsible to the Dean of Faculties for carrying out regulations imposed by the faculties and deans of the appropriate College school.
Offerings in the Evening Session - Undergraduate, and in the Summer Session Undergraduate, are identical with those offered to day session undergraduates in that they are subject to the same faculty regulations and directives from the dean of the appropriate school.
The Extension Division,acting under appropriate educational authority,will administer for Baruch College - including all departments in both schools - all courses and programs made available by the Baruch College other than degree courses given to fully matriculated students. Headed by a Director of the Extension Division, operations in this unit would clear through the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs who would be responsible to the Dean of Faculties for enforcing applicable regulations and for clearance through appropriate authorities.
Since these regulations are expected to differ in specifics from those applicable to degree courses in the schools, the activities in question are represented on the chart by white areas. Provision for assuring the desired controls are explained in discussions appearing in Part II.
In all matters, the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs is responsible to the Dean of Faculties, who is assigned the responsibility of seeing that the unit's activities are subjected to appropriate authorization and are in line with the objectives of the College. Types of operations in the Extension Division are specified on the following chart.
This chart details seven types of programs to be included in the Extension Division.
This chart shows the organization of service units.
By this time it is apparent that the proposed organization classifies college functions into two major divisions:
The first includes instruction and educational administration - including the two schools, the Division of Graduate Studies and a unit to handle Special Sessions and Programs. Provision for assuring overall coordination of activities in these several areas appears in the person of the Dean of Faculties through whom all matters involving instruction and educational administration are cleared.
The second major division includes all college-wide services. Activities in the various units responsible for these services clear through the Vice Provost for Services who is assigned responsibilities which are detailed in the appropriate section of the accompanying report dealing with this subject.
The proposed service units are itemized in Chart IX.
This chart shows the servicing units to be included in the organization and the suggested title of the person who is to head each unit.
Comments on the functions for which each service unit is to be responsible, along with reasons for having the unit, appear in the appropriate section of the accompanying report.
To anyone with professional competence and experience in the area of organization and management, conditions prevailing in most educational institutions would appear to put obstacles in the way of economical operations, tend to demoralize the staff and make administrators as well as workers ineffective - an intolerable and inexcusable state of affairs, managerially speaking.
To this criticism a common response of persons in educational institutions is, in effect, that forms of organization and managerial systems which have proved effective elsewhere are not applicable here because of the peculiarities inherent in educational institutions.
A description - admittedly a bit in caricature - of the reasons which would be given for this attitude might run as follows:
"Everybody in the college has an interest in everything and therefore wants to participate in establishing operational procedures as well as in formulating applicable policies.
"It is accordingly impractical to delineate functions and assign responsibility for each to an individual with authority to make decisions and take action within clearly defined limits. If a person chooses to make decisions and take action, we have to depend on him to find out what everybody wants, on his judgment to see that an action, if any, reflects the wishes of everybody, on his good will to see that no one can complain of unfair treatment."
It is certain that this description will elicit charges that i t is an exaggeration. Admitted. But there is undeniable evidence that it nevertheless points to a structural weakness that has greatly impaired the effectiveness of the Baruch School in the past; a deficiency that, if not corrected, will sap the strength of Baruch College and limit its progress in the years ahead.
The position of this report is that conditions and resulting attitudes which have thus far led to an organization (or lack thereof) conducive to confusion, wastes, frustrations, and ineffectiveness, should not prevail as an excuse for ignoring the lesson of experience - our own and that of others. Rather, the organization proposed for Baruch College has grown out of the conviction that the situation requires the clarification of functions and responsibilities to be obtained through a more precise, formalized chart of organization accompanied by a description of responsibilities and a specification of the means to assure desired coordination.
In our view, it would be difficult to find outside of educational institutions a situation more susceptible to improvement. Improvement can be obtained by utilizing features of established worth to set up a structure and a system for administration especially designed to meet certain requirements of paramount importance to Baruch College.
In attaining its goals Baruch College will be dependent upon people - teachers, administrators, other specialists and staff members in various areas. Baruch College will accordingly be best equipped to accomplish its objectives if it is structured to (1) provide the maximum satisfaction to the individual member of the college community through opportunities for meaningful participation in the area of his competence, (2) provide, through assigned divisions of responsibility and specified lines of authority, the means for assuring competent decisions and efficient performance in every operation, and (3) provide adequate coordination to the end of synchronizing operations for maximum contributions to overall college purposes.
More specifically, the College's organizational structure should meet the test that it:
a) Delineates distinct major functions with meaningful subdivisions of each.
b) Assigns responsibility for each function to a personcompetent in that area.
c) Assures leadership byproviding appropriate status and compensation to the person held responsible for each function.
d) Maximizes the utilization of human resources by enabling every employee to work in the area of his competence, reporting either directly or through an operational supervisor to an administrative head selected because of competence in that area.
e) Assures by making certain that all important functions are assigned to responsible heads - that there exists a capable administrative person to recognize, review, or otherwise give appropriate attention to efforts of any individual in the college community - from student to dean, from cleaner to provost.
f) Provides the machinery to:
assure adequate review of appeals from action in any area and coordinate the work of various units in the college.
g) Permits, insofar as possible within limitations of its available resources and applicable regulations, maximum flexibility so that, armed with the results of experience and equipped with new knowledge and deeper insights, Baruch College can alter its policies and procedures in such ways as it then deems best to utilize its resources in attaining progressively higher goals.
The organization provides for a General Faculty and for faculties for two schools. Technical reasons for having a separate and distinct School of Business and Public Administration are generally recognized. The requirements of good organization alone call for assigning responsibility for professional education to those competent in this area. The argument is equally strong for lodging responsibility for the School of Arts and Sciences with those whose primary interest is in these fields.
Certainly the magnitude of the job to be done in each area justifies taking the necessary steps to assure competent leadership in that area. Provision for two schools assures for each operation a head carrying the top status of dean.
The school faculty of which each teacher of faculty rank is a member will depend upon the department to which he is attached. Each department is to be assigned to the school in which the department's predominant interest falls.
If a department assigned to one school offers work in the other school, one or more members of the department will be faculty members of the school to which it is not assigned, the number so assigned to be fixed by some predetermined formula based perhaps on teaching load.
The necessity for having all members of a department clear through the same P & B complex dictates the assignment of each department in its entirety to one school for purposes of clearing appointments and promotions.
Even if there were not two schools the situation in Baruch College will be such as to make it advantageous to set up at least two P & B's -again with each department assigned to only one P & B. The objective is achieved automatically under the two-school provision of the proposed organization.
Under any arrangement there will inevitably remain a "top level" job of maintaining equality among departments. Vile believe this task will be simplified rather than intensified by having teachers in professional areas clear through the P & B complex of the School of Business and Public Administration, and by having those in the disciplines of arts and sciences clear through the companion arrangement in the School of Arts and Sciences. To the individual teacher, the arrangement brings the advantage that he is judged by his peers in his own and related fields.
In summary, the teacher of faculty rank is automatically a member of at least two faculties:
(1) He is a member of the General Faculty.
(2) He is a member of the faculty of either
(a) The School of Business and Public Administration or
(b) The School of Arts and Sciences
In addition to being a member of the school faculty of which the individual is automatically a member by virtue of the affiliation of his department, he may be a designated member of the other school faculty.
The General Faculty can concern itself with any and all Baruch College matters which its members consider to bear on the College's educational processes.
It will be a college-wide group comprised almost entirely of teachers.* It will receive from its members questions, problems and proposals as to means for attaining more worthwhile results in education. It will provide at once a forum for review and discussion and a body to vote on appropriate action.
Action can take two forms:
(1) Advice, counsel, or specific recommendations forwarded to the appropriate person or body - in situations where final authority rests elsewhere.
(2) Action setting up regulations, policies to be put into effect, etc. - in situations where final authority rests in the General Faculty.
Based on experience the scope and jurisdiction of the General Faculty may be progressive)Y refined, with resulting blueprints of its functions and methods of operation. At the outset, the question of its jurisdiction may be answered
*Membership in each faculty will include - in addition to teachers - college officials (e.g. President, Provost, Deans) designated by position, and other persons who, because of educational or administrative responsibility in the college, are designated as members in that faculty.
adequately by reserving for the General Faculty all faculty functions and responsibilities in Baruch College except (1) those which, under BHE by-laws, are specifically assigned to a degree-granting school within a College, and (2) those Baruch College educational activities or services for which responsibilities are, or come to be, assigned to other than established faculties.
The suggested composition (by departments) appears on Chart II. The intention was to include all departments offering specializations applicable to the BBA, MBA and Ph.D. in business and public administration.
This heading is intended as a definite proposal for the name of the School.
It is understood that degrees in this area will, in the main, involve specializations in the Behavioral Sciences. While entirely in sympathy with this concept, we submit that it would be a mistake to use a title which limits the School by referring to this group of studies. A title such as "School of Behavioral Sciences" could give rise to technical obstacles which might later stand in the way of the School doing a job for which it finds itself competent.
This reasoning impels us to urge the broad all-inclusive title proposed above.
The proposal is that all departments in arts and sciences be included in the College of Arts and Sciences (see Chart III).
In addition, it is suggested that other groups not listed in Chart I and II but carrying faculty rank (e.g., Library, Registrar, and Student Life) be automatically included in the College of Arts and Sciences solely for the reason that their respective disciplines are more closely related to those attached to this school as compared to those of departments attached to the School of Business and Public Administration. The faculty of the latter school would, of course, have as members representatives from these units and, if it so wished, could elect to its faculty other persons of faculty rank - or even all such qualified individuals - from these college-wide servicing units.
It may be presumed that the assignment of departments to schools will be thoroughly reviewed before arrangements are finalized. At this stage, we should bear in mind that while being allocated to one of the two Baruch College Schools determines the P & B complex through which department recommendations flow, it by no means limits the department's responsibilities to the entire College; and there should be no reason why it should limit the department's college-wide opportunities.
It is presumed that the functions and responsibilities of this unit will carry over in much the same form that now exists.
Important aspects include the following:
(1) Responsibility for degree requirements is lodged in the appropriate faculty.
(2) Under the present arrangement the Division of Graduate Studies has responsibility for administering a separate budget.
Covering all disciplines within the purview of Baruch College, this division, under the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs, would assume administrative responsibility for activities in the sessions and areas specified.
Compelling reasons dictate the centralization of administration for these functions.
Despite apparent differences .....
... in time - e.g. regular evening vs. summer ... in type of program - e.g. degree vs. non-degree, and
... in student objectives - e.g. pre-baccalaureate vs. programs taken for professional advancement or personal improvement .....
the varied activities for which we would hold the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs responsible have strikingly similar requirements in respect to administration .
This similarity stems directly from the fact that to a high degree the several types of activities possess the common characteristics of being "irregular" - in the sense that the administrative needs of each differs from those of "regular" degree day students, in the sense also that such needs differ from those of most other groups for which the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs is held responsible.
The irregularities of themselves determine the essentials of an administrative organization that is effective in such areas as obtaining and scheduling of space to accommodate rapid and often unexpected changes in the number of students, deploying full time and quickly hired temporary assistants, specialists etc., and arranging for specialists to cover functions which are more or less common to all.
Reasons for putting the specified operations under a single administrative umbrella include:
(1) It will facilitate development of individuals with specialized skills equipped with knowledge gained from experience, and spread the benefit of their improved administration over the entire range of "irregular" sessions and programs.
(2) It will provide - at the operational level - machinery for coordinating related functions and procedures, for ironing out what otherwise might develop into jurisdictional disputes and - within the limit of available resources - for taking care of competing needs for space, personnel and financing.
(3) It will provide an administrative vehicle to carry any new "irregular" activity, thereby stopping the proliferation of separate administrations.
(4) It should accomplish results at a cost much lower than that possible under any plan whereby the operations here assigned to the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs are splintered into several parts, with a separate administrative and operating staff provided to each.
(5) It will provide a central office for assembling information and compiling data on the needs - financial, personnel, and space - in these, the non-day college educational activities of Baruch College. Forceful presentation of the needs by a dean assigned this responsibility should assure proper attention to budget requests.
(6) In addition to centralizing responsibility for maintaining uniformly high standards of administration and service in all of Baruch College's "irregular" educational activities, the proposed organization centralizes - in the person of the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs responsibility for seeing that each of the various activities meets the requirements of the appropriate authority or authorities - department, school, Baruch College (including policies and guide lines set by the President) BHE, and governmental regulatory bodies.
In the discussion that follows, an indication of the nature of the requirements and source of authority appears in the comments made on each of the administrative units and activities falling under the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs.
Serving both schools, the responsibility here is that of administering degree courses in both schools given to fully matriculated baccalaureate students by instructors assigned by the appropriate college department.
Authority stems directly from a school faculty through the dean of that School.
Even though instruction for these students in evening comes to be regarded merely as a "second shift", it will be necessary to provide for administration.
Similarly, even if a single budget for Day and Evening were put into effect, there would still remain the task of administering late classes.
As described for the Evening Session, the responsibility here is to administer for both schools degree course meeting the school's requirements and given to matriculated baccalaureate students.
Unlike the Evening Session, such summer courses are, of course, made available during the day as well as evening hours.
Here again, changes such as that of operating under a single college budget, staffing summer teaching with annual personnel, etc. would still leave a task of administering classes offered in summer.
In addition to these duties, the key person and staff designated to administer the above may be assigned - by the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs - administrative responsibility during the summer for certain extension courses or programs.
Graduate Studies may make similar arrangements in respect to graduate courses.
Acting under appropriate educational authority this Division is to administer for Baruch College - including all departments and both schools - all courses and programs of Baruch College other than degree courses given to fully matriculated students.
Experience - our own and that of colleges throughout the nation - has pointed up difficulties, which can be avoided by positive and definite action of three sorts.
First, Baruch College should determine what it wants to do in this area. This is a top level decision to be made by the President who would undoubtedly utilize the counsel and advice of the Dean of Faculties, the Dean of the School of Business and Public Administration, the Dean of the School of Arts and Sciences, the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs, the Provost, and the Vice Provost in Charge of Services. It can be assumed that these college officers would in turn reflect the judgments of educational departments and servicing units. In addition the President can turn to the administrative counsel for advice.
Secondly, after determining what it wants to do at present and what it wants to be equipped to do in the future, Baruch College would seek the necessary BHE authorization. Instead of being restrictive, this authorization should be broad enough to enable Baruch College, within its area of competence, to change the scope and direction of its extension activities as warranted by changes in conditions, and by periodic appraisals of the results of experience viewed in the light of deeper insights as to educational opportunities. Baruch College should be able to revise its programs and offerings to meet varying needs - without subjecting the College to restrictions such as those followed with reason - in courses approved for degree sequences.
* BHE authorization should be obtained to provide complete flexibility so that the President will be able, under such regulations as he deems appropriate, to develop and make available such extension activities as he may decide are
Thirdly, Baruch College, through its President - utilizing advice as above should establish and revise as necessary, guide lines which would control the direction to be taken, the limits within which operations are to fall, and - in the case of each extension activity - the authority under which the activity is to be carried on.
By these arrangements the college will possess a most important essential for developments of Programs of service to the community. That essential is to have a person who is armed with authority and who is equipped and able to say "Yes" or "No" with respect to a proposal for any kind of program outside of regular courses approved for a degree sequence.
These are courses of pre-college level (e.g. mathematics, English for foreigners, American history, etc.) which the College may decide to give as an accommodation to students undertaking to meet admission requirements or to make up a deficiency.
Such courses would be offered in the Extension Division by the appropriate college department with content and standards adequate to meet requirements of the school to which credits are to be proffered.
desirable, provided only that they are within the competence of the school. More specifically, the President should be authorized:
(2) Courses to Qualify for Acceptance as a Fully Matriculated Student
Historically, the Senior Colleges have offered high school graduates who fall short of the high quality requirements for admission as fully matrics, an opportunity to earn the status of fully matric through their record in college courses.
Courses in this type of program would be offered in the Extension Division by the appropriate college department with content and standards determined by the school for which the student is attempting to qualify.
(3) Degree Courses or Sections Taken by Non-Matriculated Students with Privilege of Transferring for Degree Credit
Offered in the Extension Division, these courses would be given under conditions specified above in (2).
(4) Programs of Degree Courses, Any One of Which Might Be Varied by Adding Preparatory or Remedial Work, Offered to Disadvantaged or Others.
Programs of such courses for special groups (e.g. Seek) would be offered in the Extension Division. Course content and form of course would be authorized by the faculty of the appropriate school. Authority for extra hours, tutoring, advisory, etc. would come from the President. As in the case of all courses to be accepted for a degree, teachers even though especially selected to teach in a specified program - would teach under the auspices of the appropriate educational department.
(5) Sections of Degree Courses for Non-Degree Students
The Extension Division would be authorized to offer such sections of any degree course in Baruch College.
The appropriate college department would provide the instructor.
(6) Variations and Combinations of Existing Courses (These would carry no credit toward any Baruch College degree)
In respect to any course approved by the BHE for the Baruch College, the Extension Division, upon a directive from the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs acting under guide lines issued by the President, will be authorized* to
(a) offer parts of any course, offer in combination more than one course of the same department, and increase or reduce the hours as scheduled. Each specific action requires approval of the Chairman of the Department involved or the Dean of Faculties, or the President.
(b) Offer courses of such length as may be deemed desirable, which combines subject matter from more than one department.
Such courses require approval:
(7) Executive and Professional Training and Personal Improvement Programs, Conferences, Institutes, Etc.
The Extension Division, upon a directive from the Dean of Special Sessions and Programs acting in accordance with guide lines issued by the President, may develop any offerings of these types.
*Requires BHE approval. See above.
An analysis of the wide range of services needed in the college results in the delineation of ten distinct major functions, each of which requires specialists. Provision is accordingly made for ten units, each established to provide, on a college-wide basis, services subsumed under the major function for which the unit is responsible.
Each of these units is to be headed by a person chosen for his competence in that field and for his ability to carry out controlling policies and attain effective and economical operations.
These arrangements should result in minimizing costs and maximizing the quality and availability of services.
Regardless of the efficiency of units held responsible for the services indicated, there remains the major function of overall coordination and control. This function is assigned to the Vice Provost For Services to whom the head of each servicing unit is responsible. His office will have responsibility for:
(a) Determining, in the light of college-wide needs and available resources, what services are to be provided, in what amounts, and within what limits.
(b) Controlling the amount of a service to be made available to each of the various segments of the college. This includes "riding herd" on competing requests emanating from other servicing units as well as originating in the school's educational departments, and units responsible for educational administration.
(c) Checking the economy and effectiveness of operations and the maintenance of quality standards.
(d) Assembling information and compiling data on the needs of each servicing unit and combining requests from all units into budget requests.
Comments on each of the service units follow. The suggested title of the person in charge of the unit appears in parentheses.
Functions of the unit "Personnel and Office Management" (see unit #6) include certain assignments for which the Business Manager's office has prev pagely been held responsible.
Aside from this change, the list of functions aims simply to recognize those for which the Business Manager is ordinarily held responsible with the exception that Buildings and Grounds is set up as a separate and distinct unit.
This means that the functions for which the Business Manager is held responsible are limited to the areas of accounting and finance.
As already indicated, we set this up as a unit reporting not to the Business Manager but to the Vice Provost For Services. Responsibilities and nature of work are distinctly different from those included in Accounting and Financial and require the technical expertise of a man selected for his competence in this area.
The necessity for establishing a computer service unit headed by a person competent in this field should be obvious.
Rapid improvement in equipment, progressively deeper insights into uses of data processing, the variety of specialized technicians required for operation, and the resulting requirements in respect to supervision, plus the prospect of increased use in many service units as well as in college courses - all these support the conclusions that:
(a) It is unreasonable to assume that administrators with other responsibilities in the college have either the competence or the time to handle this highly technical, important operation.
(b) A competent administrator is required if the college is to maintain its own equipment or if it is to go beyond nominal use restricted to occasional purchase of computer services from agencies outside the college.
(c) There should be a centralized, college-wide computer servicing unit headed by a person chosen for his competence in this field.
It is proposed that the recently authorized HEO line be used to obtain a competent administrator for the computer services unit.
This unit should have responsibility for such medical and psychiatric services as are made available to persons in the college community.
We strongly urge that the Health unit include psychiatric services, and that responsibility therefore be lodged in the College Physician.
Under this area would fall all of the functions ordinarily associated with the library including audio-visual aids.
We propose that as the administrator for this division, there be selected a person with qualifications to attain the objectives of the division. The HEO title is appropriate for this purpose.
As personnel officer, the administrator of this division would have responsibility for selection, retention, training, and performance control of all persons employed for administrative (i.e. non-teaching and non-professional) personnel.
The unit, which would report to the Vice Provost For Services, would be responsible for accomplishing effective office procedures and practices, for deploying administrative help and office equipment to the various officers, for setting up arrangements for filing, storing and discarding office records, and for requisitioning office equipment and supplies.
This unit represents a new point of departure in colleges of the City University. We strongly recommend it as being highly desirable. At the present time responsibility for the functions assigned to this unit are widely diffused among departments and units of the college that make no claim to competence in the areas involved.
There apparently exists a vague notion that either the Business Manager or the Dean of Administration is responsible for office management throughout the College. The simple fact is that a study of colleges of the City University fails to uncover anywhere an example of organizational and managerial provisions that could afford the means for accomplishing efficient and effective office operations; with personnel, equipment, and facilities distributed on an equitable basis all under the supervision of a person of competence in these fields.
The Personnel and Office Management unit is proposed to overcome this deficiency.
(Note: Using sub-functions to indicate the scope of the Registrar's functions is done deliberately with intention of suggesting that the Baruch College Registrar move toward use of a functionally-oriented, college-wide service approach). In our judgment there is no reason for changing the prevailing arrangement in colleges of the City University where, in every instance, there is a separate registrar's office under a Registrar. It is generally recognized that the Registrar's function is complicated, requires specialized personnel, and involves work of a technical nature. It must be conceded that the operation should be headed by a person chosen because of specialized competence in his field and that he should be given a status (which is now available in the City University) appropriate to his position.
As indicated for activities falling under the Health Unit of the college, any desired coordination with personal counseling work carried on under the Dean of Students and with other activities in the college, can be easily accomplished.
Attainment of desired coordination with all college operations is the responsibility of the Vice Provost For Services.
A separate unit is proposed for this over-all function, the importance of which would appear to justify assigning the status of Dean to the one held responsible therefore.
The areas covered would include both institutional and professional, as well as research in any other areas which Baruch College decided to include.
The functions include:
Inclusion of Curricular Guidance under the Dean of Students is proposed with full realization that guides to the information provided stem directly from faculty
regulations and that control of the type of advice given should be lodged with the Dean of the school involved in the advice. The function is nevertheless included under the Dean of Students on the theory that the necessary guides could easily be prescribed, that required data could be made available, and that much could be gained through coordinating curricular guidance with other personal counseling that inevitably falls under the Dean of Students.
Based on a delineation of functions, the proposed organizational structure has been designed to lodge responsibility for each major function in a unit equipped with specialized personnel to perform in that area.
The division of college operations on a functional base enables the college to choose the head of each unit on the basis of specialized competency, increases the possibilities of benefiting from experience because like activities are funneled through a single office.
The same clarification of responsibility, supplemented by knowledge of established controlling policies and regulations, automatically provides the head of each unit with an essential ingredient of effective management authority to act on matters for which he is held responsible.
The BHE has long made available certain titles which provide status and commensurate compensation. The difficulty in the past has been that the Baruch School operated on a meager ration of top lines -a situation that should now be remedied.
In the proposed organization, stipulating the highest possible rank for the person responsible for each major function stems from the conviction that this is necessary if Baruch is to attract and hold persons of competence in each area.
This comment may help to explain why the proposed organization indicates a liberal use of "top titles" such as Dean. While this report contains no blueprint showing titles for key persons operating under the head of each unit, it presumes that each head, supported by adequate documentation of established needs, will requisition and obtain an adequate number of lines in the associate and assistant categories.
Our colleges long suffered because persons responsible for setting up lines seemingly labored under the mistaken impression that the only work in the college was either teaching or clerical.
Progress toward overcoming this deficiency appeared as appropriate lines were provided in certain areas (e.g. in the registrar's office there are now line positions for registrar, associate and assistant, etc.).
In the recent setting up of lines for Higher Education Officer (including assistant and associate), the BHE made, in our judgment, a highly important step toward filling an administrative void. Now, even though an assignment does not fall in one of the operations for which appropriate lines have been established, a competent individual can be hired at annual rates of pay scheduled to equal those received by assistant, associate and full professors.
The availability of H.E.O. lines has been kept in mind in designing the proposed organization. We recommend that the HEO title be used to head the units "Personnel Officer and Office Management" and "Public Relations Officer". Again, we presume that those units not now favored with appropriate lines will utilize HEO lines to provide for needed key persons.
We have also used the title of Provost and Vice Provost.
Use of the title of Provost and Higher Education Officer explains why the title of Dean of Administration does not appear in the organization chart.
Our understanding is that this title came into being to provide the President with means to obtain a number one assistant. He could use the lure of status, accompanied by a full professor's salary (plus extras), to attract the desired person.
Instead of attempting to convert a classroom teacher into administrator we think it more appropriate to make other provisions using titles and lines more appropriate to the need. As a result, the proposed table of organization does not include a Dean of Administration.
A study of the proposed organization will reveal that functions with which the Dean of Administration might be concerned are performed by the Provost (who serves as the President's number one assistant), by the Dean of Faculties in respect to matters academic, and by a Vice Provost For Services.
Many problems and details that have formerly come to the President - and which have accordingly given rise to his need for an assistant - should not come to his attention and need not if functions are properly and definitely assigned to operational units and if there is provision for adequate review and coordination of effort before they are brought to the President.
The proposed structure of organization and system of management attempts to attain these desired objectives. Thus, the Business Manager is assigned the function of preparing budgets, etc. and the administrator of the unit "Personnel and Office Management" has the job of taking care of innumerable detail problems which prev pagely found their way by default - to the Dean of Administration.
Before problems emanating from these and similar service units reach the President they come in the purview of the Vice Provost For Services.
Similarly, in the areas of Instruction and Educational Administration there is a definite and specific assignment of duties. Before problems of these areas reach the President they are subjected to review and, coordination of effort at a midmanagement level personified in the Dean of Faculties.
This description of why the title of Dean of Administration does not appear in the proposed organization chart will help the reader understand the following statement of methods used to accomplish a desired coordination of efforts of all units in Baruch College and the means to be used for assuring that activities in each area contribute to the overall objectives of Baruch College.
In summary, the proposed organization provides three distinct means for assuring adequate overall coordination.
First, at the operating level the various subdivisions of each major function are cleared through an administrator who has the responsibility for carrying out overall college policies and directives. Within operating units provision is made for further coordination. Examples:
Secondly, provision is made in respect to every activity for review and coordination at mid-management levels - i.e., at a point between operations and top level decisions.
Thus, all activities involving instruction and educational administration are cleared through the Dean of Faculties. All services are cleared through the Vice Provost For Services.
At the top level the President has the assistance of the Provost and the advice of an Administrative Council comprised of all deans and all other important administrators.
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