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|Contexts and Comparisons||Chapter 2 - Sacred Texts|
The great ancient civilizations of the Americas, often referred to collectively by the general term "pre-Columbian," flourished two thousand years or more before the arrival of Columbus. Recent archeological excavations in Guatemala, for example, have revealed remains of Mayan temples and pyramids dating from approximately 600 B. C.
The ancient Maya who lived in parts of present-day Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Belize, designed a system of hieroglyphic writing and a distinctive style of artistic representation. Working from sophisticated astronomical calculations, they devised complicated calendars that include a 365-day and a 260-day cycle, thought by modern scholars to evoke both a woman's gestation cycle (length of pregnancy) and the time between planting and harvesting one of the staple crops, corn.
Among the surviving Maya peoples are an ethnic group living today in highland Guatemala, who speak a language known as Quiché, named for the kingdom they once ruled. The Quiché lords recorded the mythic history of their culture's genesis and experience from the beginning of time until the conquest by Spain in the sixteenth century in a Council Book (1), or, in Quiché, the Popol Vuh. The first manuscript of the Popol Vuh was most likely a hieroglyphic text based on centuries-old oral recitations of the Quiché narrative of origins. The work probably was burned by the missionaries who came to convert the indigenous populations of Mesoamerica; typically, the missionaries changed the name and site of the capital city of the Quiché to Santa Cruz (Holy Cross).
The Popul Vuh survived because the missionaries transcribed the sounds of the Maya language into alphabetic equivalents. Ironically, the linguistic format they created in order to transmit Christian documents to the Maya peoples also became the means by which the native peoples preserved their traditional books after the destruction of their hieroglyphic versions. The only known copy of the Popul Vuh is a dual-language text in the Roman alphabet written by a friar in the early eighteenth century alongside his own translation of the Quiché into Spanish.
In the first excerpt, the opening of the Popul Vuh occasionally alludes to the imposition of Christianity; for the most part, however, the text ignores biblical teaching, retelling the Quiché creation story of the Mesoamerican world that gave it being. The narrative begins before the creation of human beings, with a conclave of gods of sky and sea, including a "Great White Peccary" (wild pig) and the "Maker of the Blue-Green Bowl." (2) These gods cooperate to create the world, or "sky-earth," and then attempt to populate it. After several unsuccessful efforts, the gods finally approve of human figures made out of cornmeal. The second excerpt below describes the fate of an earlier try, human figures made of wood.
Excerpts from the Popul Vuh (3)
This is the beginning of the Ancient Word, here in this place called Quiché. Here we shall inscribe, we shall implant the Ancient Word, the potential and source for everything done in the citadel of Quiché, in the nation of Quiché people.
And here we shall take up the demonstration, revelation, and account of how things were put in shadow and brought to light
as they are called, also named, also described
as is said in the words of Quiché. They accounted for everything--and did it, too--as enlightened beings, in enlightened words. We shall write about this now amid the preaching of God, in Christendom now. We shall bring it out because there is no longer a place to see it, a Council Book,
a place to see "The Dawn of Life," as it is called. There is the original book and ancient writing, but he who reads and ponders it hides his face. It takes a long performance and account to complete the emergence of all the sky-earth:
as it is said,
This is the Account, here it is:
Now it still ripples, now it still murmurs, ripples, it still sighs, still hums, and it is empty under the sky.
Here follow the first words, the first eloquence:
There is not yet one person, one animal, bird, fish, crab, tree, rock, hollow, canyon, meadow, forest. Only the sky alone is there; the face of the earth is not clear. Only the sea alone is pooled under all the sky; there is nothing whatever gathered together. It is at rest; not a single thing stirs. It is held back, kept at rest under the sky.
Whatever there is that might be is simply not there: only the pooled water, only the calm sea, only it alone is pooled.
Whatever might be is simply not there: only murmurs, ripples, in the dark, in the night. Only the Maker, Modeler alone, Sovereign Plumed Serpent, the Bearers, Begetters are in the water, a glittering light. They are there, they are enclosed in quetzal feathers, in blue-green.
Thus the name, "Plumed Serpent." They are great knowers, great thinkers in their very being.
And of course there is the sky, and there is also the Heart of Sky. This is the name of the god, as it is spoken.
And then came his word, he came here to the Sovereign Plumed Serpent, here in the blackness, in the early dawn. He spoke with the Sovereign Plumed Serpent, and they talked, then they thought, then they worried. They agreed with each other, they joined their words, their thoughts. Then it was clear, then they reached accord in the light, and then humanity was clear, when they conceived the growth, the generation of trees, of bushes, and the growth of life, of humankind, in the blackness, in the early dawn, all because of the Heart of Sky, named Hurricane. Thunderbolt Hurricane comes first, the second is Newborn Thunderbolt, and the third is Raw Thunderbolt.
So there were three of them, as Heart of Sky, who came to the Sovereign Plumed Serpent, when the dawn of life was conceived:
"How should it be sown, how should it dawn? Who is to be the provider, nurturer?"
"Let it be this way, think about it: this water should be removed, emptied out for the formation of the earth's own plate and platform, then comes the sowing, the dawning of the sky-earth. But there will be no high days and no bright praise for our work, our design, until the rise of the human work, the human design," they said.
And then the earth arose because of them, it was simply their word that brought it forth. For the forming of the earth they said "Earth." It arose suddenly, just like a cloud, like a mist, now forming, unfolding. Then the mountains were separated from the water, all at once the great mountains came forth. By their genius alone, by their cutting edge alone they carried out the conception of the mountain-plain, whose face grew instant groves of cypress and pine.
And the Plumed Serpent was pleased with this:
"It was good that you came, Heart of Sky, Hurricane, and Newborn Thunderbolt, Raw Thunderbolt. Our work, our design will turn out well," they said.
And the earth was formed first, the mountain-plain. The channels of water were separated; their branches wound their ways among the mountains. The waters were divided when the great mountains appeared.
Such was the formation of the earth when it was brought forth by the Heart of Sky, Heart of Earth, as they are called, since they were the first to think of it. The sky was set apart, and the earth was set apart in the midst of the waters.
Such was their plan when they thought, when they worried about the completion of their work
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Now they planned the animals of the mountains, all the guardians of the forests, creatures of the mountains: the deer, birds, pumas, jaguars, serpents, rattlesnakes, yellowbites, guardians of the bushes.
A Bearer, Begetter speaks:
"Why this pointless humming? Why should there merely be rustling beneath the trees and bushes?"
"Indeed--they had better have guardians," the others replied. As soon as they thought it and said it, deer and birds came forth.
And then they gave out homes to the deer and birds:
"You, the deer: sleep along the rivers, in the canyons. Be here in the meadows, in the thickets, in the forests, multiply yourselves. You will stand and walk on all fours," they were told.
So then they established the nests of the birds, small and great:
"You, precious birds: your nests, your houses are in the trees, in the bushes. Multiply there, scatter there, in the branches of trees, the branches of bushes," the deer and birds were told.
When this deed had been done, all of them had received a place to sleep and a place to stay. So it is that the nests of the animals are on the earth, given by the Bearer, Begetter. Now the arrangement of the deer and birds was complete.
And then the deer and birds were told by the Maker, Modeler, Bearer, Begetter:
"Talk, speak out. Don't moan, don't cry out. Please talk, each to each, within each kind, within each group," they were told--the deer, birds, puma, jaguar, serpent.
"Name now our names, praise us. We are your mother, we are your father. Speak now:
speak, pray to us, keep our days," they were told. But it didn't turn out that they spoke like people: they just squawked, they just chattered, they just howled. It wasn't apparent what language they spoke; each one gave a different cry. When the Maker, Modeler heard this:
"It hasn't turned out well, they haven't spoken," they said among themselves. "It hasn't turned out that our names have been named. Since we are their mason and sculptor, this will not do," the Bearers and Begetters said among themselves. So they told them:
"You will simply have to be transformed. Since it hasn't turned out well and you haven't spoken, we have changed our word:
"What you feed on, what you eat, the places where you sleep, the places where you stay, whatever is yours will remain in the canyons, the forests. Although it turned out that our days were not kept, nor did you pray to us, there may yet be strength in the keeper of days, the giver of praise whom we have yet to make. Just accept your service, just let your flesh be eaten.
"So be it, this must be your service," they were told when they were instructed--the animals, small and great, on the face of the earth.
And then they wanted to test their timing again, they wanted to experiment again, and they wanted to prepare for the keeping of days again. They had not heard their speech among the animals; it did not come to fruition and it was not complete.
And so their flesh was brought low: they served, they were eaten, they were killed--the animals on the face of the earth.
Again there comes an experiment with the human work, the human design, by the Maker, Modeler, Bearer, Begetter:
"It must simply be tried again. The time for the planting and dawning is nearing. For this we must make a provider and nurturer. How else can we be invoked and remembered on the face of the earth? We have already made our first try at our work and design, but it turned out that they didn't keep our days, nor did they glorify us.
"So now let's try to make a giver of praise, giver of respect, provider, nurturer," they said.
So then comes the building and working with earth and mud. They made a body, but it didn't look good to them. It was just separating, just crumbling, just loosening, just softening, just disintegrating, and just dissolving. Its head wouldn't turn, either. Its face was just lopsided, its face was just twisted. It couldn't look around. It talked at first, but senselessly. It was quickly dissolving in the water.
"It won't last," the mason and sculptor said then. "It seems to be dwindling away, so let it just dwindle. It can't walk and it can't multiply, so let it be merely a thought," they said.
So then they dismantled, again they brought down their work and design. Again they talked:
"What is there for us to make that would turn out well, that would succeed in keeping our days and praying to us?" they said. Then they planned again:
"We'll just tell Xpiyacoc, Xmucane, Hunahpu Possum, Hunahpu Coyote, to try a counting of days, a counting of lots," the mason and sculptor said to themselves. Then they invoked Xpiyacoc, Xmucane.
Then comes the naming of those who are midmost seers: the "Grandmother of Day, Grandmother of Light," as the Maker, Modeler called them. These are names of Xpiyacoc and Xmucane.
When Hurricane had spoken with the Sovereign Plumed Serpent, they invoked the daykeepers, diviners, the midmost seers:
"There is yet to find, yet to discover how we are to model a person, construct a person again, a provider, nurturer, so that we are called upon and we are recognized: our recompense is in words.
So be it, fulfill your names:
You have been called upon because of our work, our design. Run your hands over the kernels of corn, over the seeds of the coral tree, just get it done, just let it come out whether we should carve and gouge a mouth, a face in wood," they told the daykeepers.
And then comes the borrowing, the counting of days; the hand is moved over the corn kernels, over the coral seeds, the days, the lots.
Then they spoke to them, one of them a grandmother, the other a grandfather.
This is the grandfather, this is the master of the coral seeds: Xpiyacoc is his name.
And this is the grandmother, the daykeeper, diviner who stands behind others: Xmucane is her name.
And they said, as they set out the days:
they said to the corn kernels, coral seeds, days, lots. "Have shame, you up there, Heart of Sky: attempt no deception before the mouth and face of Sovereign Plumed Serpent," they said. Then they spoke straight to the point:
"It is well that there be your manikins, woodcarvings, talking, speaking, there on the face of the earth."
"So be it," they replied. The moment they spoke it was done: the manikins, woodcarvings, human in looks and human in speech.
This was the peopling of the face of the earth:
They came into being, they multiplied, they had daughters, they had sons, these manikins, woodcarvings. But there was nothing in their hearts and nothing in their minds, no memory of their mason and builder. They just went and walked wherever they wanted. Now they did not remember the Heart of Sky.
And so they fell, just an experiment and just a cutout for humankind. They were talking at first but their faces were dry. They were not yet developed in the legs and arms. They had no blood, no lymph. They had no sweat, no fat. Their complexions were dry, their faces were crusty. They flailed their legs and arms, their bodies were deformed.
And so they accomplished nothing before the Maker, Modeler who gave them birth, gave them heart. They became the first numerous people here on the face of the earth.
Again there comes a humiliation, destruction, and demolition. The manikins, woodcarvings were killed when the Heart of Sky devised a flood for them. A great flood was made; it came down on the heads of the manikins, woodcarvings.
The man's body was carved from the wood of the coral tree by the Maker, Modeler. And as for the woman, the Maker, Modeler needed the pith of reeds for the woman's body. They were not competent, nor did they speak before the builder and sculptor who made them and brought them forth, and so they were killed, done in by a flood:
There came a rain of resin from the sky.
There came the one named Gouger of Faces: he gouged out their eyeballs.
There came Sudden Bloodletter: he snapped off their heads.
There came Crunching Jaguar: he ate their flesh.
There came Tearing Jaguar: he tore them open.
They were pounded down to the bones and tendons, smashed and pulverized even to the bones. Their faces were smashed because they were incompetent before their mother and their father, the Heart of Sky, named Hurricane. The earth was blackened because of this; the black rainstorm began, rain all day and rain all night. Into their houses came the animals, small and great. Their faces were crushed by things of wood and stone. Everything spoke: their water jars, their tortilla griddles, their plates, their cooking pots, their dogs, their grinding stones, each and every thing crushed their faces. Their dogs and turkeys told them:
"You caused us pain, you ate us, but now it is you whom we shall eat." And this is the grinding stone:
This was the service we gave you at first, when you were still people, but today you will learn of our power. We shall pound and we shall grind your flesh," their grinding stones told them.
And this is what their dogs said, when they spoke in their turn:
"Why is it you can't seem to give us our food? We just watch and you just keep us down, and you throw us around. You keep a stick ready when you eat, just so you can hit us. We don't talk, so we've received nothing from you. How could you not have known? You did know that we were wasting away there, behind you.
"So, this very day you will taste the teeth in our mouths. we shall eat you," their dogs told them, and their faces were crushed.
And then their tortilla griddles and cooking pots spoke to them in turn:
"Pain! That's all you've done for us. Our mouths are sooty, our faces are sooty. By setting us on the fire all the time, you burn us. Since we felt no pain, you try it. We shall burn you," all their cooking pots said, crushing their faces.
The stones, their hearthstones were shooting out, coming right out of the fire, going for their heads, causing them pain. Now they run for it, helter-skelter.
They want to climb up on the houses, but they fall as the houses collapse.
They want to climb the trees; they're thrown off by the trees.
They want to get inside caves, but the caves slam shut in their faces.
Such was the scattering of the human work, the human design. The people were ground down, overthrown. The mouths and faces of all of them were destroyed and crushed. And it used to be said that the monkeys in the forests today are a sign of this. They were left as a sign because wood alone was used for their flesh by the builder and sculptor.
So this is why monkeys look like people: they are a sign of a previous human work, human design--mere manikins, mere woodcarvings.
Questions for Discussion
- Do you see any evidence that the Ancient Word was not originally a written text but an oral tradition?
- In what ways does the Quiché account of creation seem to acknowledge the first chapters of the Book of Genesis?
- The gods first create creatures who cannot speak; then they form creatures out of earth and mud, followed by wood and cornmeal. Is this sequence of creation significant? What do the Quiché gods seem to want from human beings?
- Do you see any resemblance between the different cycles of creation in the Popol Vuh and the other stories of origins that you have studied? What themes seem common to many different cultures?
1. To be referred to during the deliberations in council.
2. The colors may refer both to the sky and the sea and to the ceramic altars at which incense was burned.
3. This translation is by Dennis Tedlock.